PHL 103 Kishwaukee College Valid & Invalid Limitation of Immediate Inference Questions


(a) clearly identify the immediate inference as valid, invalid, or valid by limitation, and (b) provide the rationale for your assessment in terms of the squares of opposition and/or the operations of conversion, obversion, and contraposition. Be sure to pay special attention whatever effect existential import may have on the validity of the immediate inferences

All fear-instilling dragons are formidable foes.

Therefore, it is false that some fear-instilling dragons are not formidable foes

Modern Interpretation

Test the validity of each of the following categorical syllogisms using Venn diagrams. (1) When setting up each Venn diagram, please use the lower left-hand circle to represent the subject term of the conclusion and the lower right-hand circle to represent the predicate term of the conclusion. The upper circle should be used to represent the syllogism’s middle term. (2) Clearly identify the form of the syllogism using the indicated terms, and keep in mind that you may need to reduce terms, as explained in Section 6G, before diagramming. Any argument that results from the reduction of terms should include only the three terms indicated for the corresponding syllogism. Finally, (3) clearly indicate whether the argument is valid or invalid, and (4) explain your reasoning

All trespassers are people who will be prosecuted, and some trespassers are people who will be shot. Therefore, some people who will be prosecuted are people who will be shot.

(T = trespassers; P = people who will be prosecuted; S = people who will be shot)

Traditional Interpretation

No worldly possessions are unimaginable things, and no imaginable things are unchangeable items. Therefore, some changeable items are not other-worldly possessions.

(W = worldly possessions; I = imaginable things; C = changeable items)


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